By Duncan Manley
Kinds, dealing with and makes use of in Biscuit Manufacture
history to the biscuit industry
Hygiene and protection aspects
Wheat flour and different cereals
Sugars and syrups
fat, oils and butter
Dried fruit and nuts
Flavours and spice
Chocolate and cocoa
Read Online or Download Biscuit, Cookie, and Cracker Manufacturing, Manual 1: Ingredients (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition) PDF
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Extra resources for Biscuit, Cookie, and Cracker Manufacturing, Manual 1: Ingredients (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition)
It is possible to improve the dispersion of the fat in the aqueous phase by using a chemical that has both water and oil solubility characters. Chemicals with these properties are called surface active agents and range from those that promote the dissolution of fats in water, known to us as detergents, and those that promote the dispersion of water in fat, commonly called emulsifiers. Fats in a biscuit recipe contribute to the soft eating nature of the baked biscuit. They make the dough shorter, less extensible and the biscuit softer because less water is needed to make the dough.
At high ambient temperature butter will become rancid within a few weeks. Butter fat may also be purchased as butter oil without any appreciable moisture and protein. Blocks of butter oil are not normally plasticised making them much harder than butter. The flavour imparted to biscuits made from butter oil instead of butter is much inferior, so that butter oil is not a popular ingredient for biscuits. It may be possible to purchase butter that has been ‘denatured’ with sugar. If the quantity of sugar added is known this can be a useful ingredient for biscuits.
In short doughs there is not normally enough water in the formulation to allow all the sugar to dissolve so the crystal size of the sucrose used affects the eating characteristics of the baked biscuit. 2 Uses in biscuit filling creams In biscuit filling creams there is a need to have a smooth mouthfeel and rapid dissolution of the sugar in the mouth. Fine particle sized sucrose, icing sugar, is used. Sometimes some dextrose is used to reduce the overall sweetness. Dextrose (usually used as the monohydrate) has a negative heat of solution giving an attractive cool mouthfeel as it dissolves.
Biscuit, Cookie, and Cracker Manufacturing, Manual 1: Ingredients (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition) by Duncan Manley