By H.A. Kiehne
The main finished advisor to the basic theories, ideas, and methods applied for battery operation and layout. retains experts proficient of the present kingdom of the sector with new and revised chapters targeting the security, functionality, caliber, and enhancement of varied batteries and battery platforms. incorporates a large rage of examples, dimensions, and necessities for transparent figuring out of the subject.
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In the center of Fig. 13 the distribution of the current between charging and internal oxygen cycle is shown. The current share, consumed by the internal oxygen cycle is magniﬁed by 10 during the initial phase and by two during equalizing. The sum of charging current and internal oxygen cycle represents the charging current (hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion equivalents are not considered, since they are two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the internal oxygen cycle). Actually, the current would slightly be increased by heating of the battery.
In the charged state, the carbon electrode is ﬁlled with lithium. During discharge, lithium ions are intercalated into the oxide (from Ref. 7). Another reaction mechanism that in a certain aspect resembles to the above one characterizes lithium-ion batteries (cf. Chapter 18). The course of the cell reaction is illustrated in Fig. 7 In such a battery, a carbon electrode that forms layers and allows intercalation of Li ions is combined with a positive electrode of a metal oxide that also intercalates the small Liþ ions into a layered structure (mainly Lix CO2 , Lix NiO2 , or Lix Mn2 O4 ).
MoleÞ; F ¼ 96485 As=equiv:; thus R=F ¼ 0:02569V ? equiv: ? moleÀ1 . The lead-acid battery may be taken as an example: In the usually applied concentration range, diluted H2 SO4 is dissociated mainly into Hþ and HSOÀ 4 ions. Only about 1% of the H2 SO4 molecules dissociate into 2 ? Hþ and SO2À 4 . In consideration of the actual state of dissociation, the cell reaction can be written Pb þ PbO2 þ 2 ? Hþ þ 2 ? HSOÀ 4 , 2 ? PbSO4 þ 2 ? H2 O ð9Þ The free enthalpy of this reaction is DG ¼ À372:6 kJ. When this value is inserted into Eq.
Battery Technology Handbook by H.A. Kiehne