By John Ernsting; P F King
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06 g/cm3. BLOOD FLOW AND VASCULAR RESISTANCE Fluid ﬂows from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure, and the ﬂow rate is affected by the resistance to ﬂow offered by the tube(s) or vessel(s) through which the ﬂuid is ﬂowing. Blood ﬂow is usually laminar, with layers of blood moving in an orderly, streamlined fashion parallel to the walls of the vessels. e. arterial pressure minus venous pressure (Pa − Pv): 15 (Pa − Pv) F= ᎏ R where R is the resistance to ﬂow. For the whole systemic circulation, ﬂow is CO and resistance is the total peripheral resistance (TPR).
Renin acts on plasma angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Angiotensin II stimulates adrenal cortical aldosterone secretion, leading to increased salt and water retention by the kidney; in addition, angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor. AUTOCOIDS (LOCAL HORMONES) AND OTHER VASOACTIVE SUBSTANCES Many substances produced during inﬂammation act locally as vasodilators, including histamine, bradykinin, platelet-activating factor and prostaglandin E2.
V O2 = CO × (arterial oxygen content − mixed venous oxygen content) Both cardiac output and oxygen extraction increase as work rate increases in exercise. Arterial oxygen content remains constant at the resting value, and the maximum oxygen extraction is limited by the minimum venous oxygen content that can be achieved. This is limited by the need to maintain a capillary PO2 sufﬁcient to drive oxygen diffusion and is similar in different people. Consequently, the maximum oxygen consumption in normal people is determined largely by the maximum cardiac output that they can generate.
Aviation medicine by John Ernsting; P F King