By Graham Bishop (auth.)
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Extra resources for Audio Circuits and Projects
2 (continued) 32/ Audio Projects (e) 46 dB. 50Hz -100k Hz low noise. ) ..... 2f). Feedback components are included in all circuits to provide negative feedback and so flatten the frequency responses. The open-loop gain, with no feedback, is very high indeed (several thousand) and this is sacrificed to flatten the response and stabilise gain, as well as greatly reducing the over-all noise and distortion. The feedback components are shown as RF and/or CF in each circuit, the remaining components serving for biasing or emitter stabilisation use.
2b has an optional electret supply formed from R 1 and C1. The electret microphone normally has an internal FET amplifier which transforms the high capacitor impedance down to a low impedance of a few hundred n. R2 acts as the load for this FET amplifier, with Rl, Cl and R2 being omitted for normal magnetic inputs. 17 . 2d is a standard design for providing very high input impedance in any amplifier. The feedback capacitor deceives the input into thinking that the input impedance is much higher than it is; it works very well.
If everyth ing is connected up and then the mains switched on, every transistor or IC can be damaged in one millisecond by a careless wiring fault - an expensive business. Test the power supply, then the amplifier , then the other circuits, remembering always to have the loudspeakers connected. Sophisticated test gear is not necessary, just a very simple multi meter and an audio source such as a small transistor radio or cassette player. 1 /-IF capacitor from the volume control , remembering to connect the chassis together.
Audio Circuits and Projects by Graham Bishop (auth.)