By John Marenbon
Philosophy within the medieval Latin West earlier than 1200 is usually idea to were ruled through Platonism. The articles during this quantity query this view, by way of cataloguing, describing and investigating the culture of Aristotelian good judgment in this interval, reading its effect on authors frequently positioned in the Aristotelian culture (Eriugena, Anselm, Gilbert of Poitiers), and likewise taking a look at a few of the features of early medieval Platonism. Abelard, the main remarkable philosopher of the age, is the most topic of 3 articles, and the publication concludes with extra common discussions approximately how and why medieval philosophy might be studied.
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Extra info for Aristotelian Logic, Platonism, and the Context of Early
Rhetorical questions obfuscate speakers’ and writers’ intended meanings because they make it more difﬁcult to interpret whether or not a speaker/ writer really does support a given claim. Rhetorical questions are common 27 Why should we become critical thinkers? in polemical newspaper articles and in readers’ letters to an editor. If you encounter rhetorical questions in texts and speech that you are analysing, try to rewrite the question as a declarative sentence. For instance, if someone were to write: Should my right to freedom of speech be limited just because you disagree with me?
For example, if someone argues: ‘Sally is taking drugs; therefore she is breaking the law’, the arguer is probably using the rather vague term ‘drugs’ in the narrow sense of ‘recreational drugs’, or perhaps in the sense of ‘narcotics’. In the wider sense of ‘drugs’ that includes medicinal drugs, this would obviously be a bad argument. Furthermore, the arguer is assuming, without explicitly stating, that it is illegal to take such drugs. So two sorts of thing are left implicit in this argument: ﬁrst, the arguer assumes a more precise meaning than is explicitly expressed by the word ‘drugs’; second, the arguer fails to make explicit all the facts from which he or she infers the conclusion.
Philosophers of language use the term ‘vague’ to apply to words that have a clear meaning, but which have an indeﬁnitely demarcated extension. Obvious cases are colour-words like ‘orange’: there is no precise 25 Why should we become critical thinkers? division between orange things and yellow things, for example. Things can often be precisely compared with respect to such attributes, however. For example X may be more bald, or fatter, sleepier, taller or faster than Y, even if it is not deﬁnite whether or not X is bald, fat, sleepy, tall or fast.
Aristotelian Logic, Platonism, and the Context of Early by John Marenbon