Download e-book for iPad: Applied thermodynamics for engineering technologists by T D Eastop; A McConkey

By T D Eastop; A McConkey

ISBN-10: 0470219823

ISBN-13: 9780470219829

ISBN-10: 0582091934

ISBN-13: 9780582091931

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The idea of a reversible process is simply an ideal construct used in thermodynamics. It can never be truly realized. This is even more true for the very rapid bursting process of unresisted expansion, considered earlier. Apart from friction and un-resisted expansion, there are several other processes, such as mixing of two unlike fluids, heat transfer across a finite temperature difference, flow of electric current through a resistor, and plastic deformation of a material, in which the process cannot be executed in a truly reversible manner.

Our first task, therefore, will be to define the keywords in this definition: system, heat, work, and properties. The relationships among these quantities are embodied in the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. The laws enable one to evaluate change in the states of the system, as identified by the changes in its properties. In thermodynamics, this change is called a process, although, in common everyday language, the processes may be identified with terms such as cooling, heating, expansion, compression, phasechange (melting, solidification, evaporation, condensation), or chemical reaction (such as combustion or catalysis).

The latter type of boundary is often invoked to facilitate application of the laws of thermodynamics to the identified matter. 2 Work and Heat Interactions In thermodynamics, work and heat are defined only at the system boundary as interactions between the system and its surroundings or vice versa. 3 Because these interactions are directional, they are assigned a sign. By convention, when heat (Q) flows into the system, it is assigned a positive value. In contrast, when work (W) is delivered from the system to the surroundings, it is assigned a positive value.

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Applied thermodynamics for engineering technologists by T D Eastop; A McConkey

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