By Sadik Hafizovic, Kay-Uwe Kirstein, Andreas Hierlemann (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Satoshi Kawata, Professor Dr. Harald Fuchs (eds.)
The scanning probe microscopy ?eld has been speedily increasing. it's a not easy activity to assemble a well timed review of this ?eld with an emphasis on technical dev- opments and business functions. It grew to become obtrusive whereas enhancing Vols. I–IV that a huge variety of technical and applicational facets are current and swiftly - veloping all over the world. contemplating the luck of Vols. I–IV and the truth that extra colleagues from best laboratories have been able to give a contribution their most modern achie- ments, we made up our minds to extend the sequence with articles touching ?elds no longer coated within the past volumes. The reaction and aid of our colleagues have been first-class, making it attainable to edit one other 3 volumes of the sequence. unlike to- cal convention lawsuits, the utilized scanning probe tools intend to offer an outline of contemporary advancements as a compendium for either functional purposes and up to date easy learn effects, and novel technical advancements with recognize to instrumentation and probes. the current volumes conceal 3 major parts: novel probes and strategies (Vol. V), charactarization (Vol. VI), and biomimetics and business purposes (Vol. VII). quantity V contains an summary of probe and sensor applied sciences together with built-in cantilever techniques, electrostatic microscanners, low-noise equipment and more advantageous dynamic strength microscopy strategies, high-resonance dynamic strength - croscopy and the torsional resonance process, modelling of tip cantilever platforms, scanning probe equipment, ways for elasticity and adhesion measurements at the nanometer scale in addition to optical functions of scanning probe ideas in keeping with near?eld Raman spectroscopy and imaging.
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Extra info for Applied Scanning Probe Methods V: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques
For sensing applications requiring medium resolution and conversion rates, the successive-approximation architecture features good area and power efﬁciency. Both, power consumption and area constraints are important aspects in integrating multiple readout channels as required in the case of an array of AFM cantilevers. The advantages of the digital signal processing include the possibility to realize signal ﬁlter functions of higher order at better conﬁgurability as compared to an analog implementation.
Kirstein · A. 6) where VDD − VSS is the supply voltage of the Wheatstone bridge, πL and πT are the longitudinal and transversal piezocoefﬁcients, σL represents the longitudinal stress at the Wheatstone bridge, and R the resistivity of the bridge elements. Therefore, for a given supply voltage, the SNR can be increased by lowering the resistivity of the Wheatstone bridge, which leads to an increased current consumption on the cantilever. In some cases, additional noise sources like (mechanical) Brownian noise or electronic ﬂicker noise have also to be considered.
8, there is at least one digital unit per cantilever required for realizing a closed-loop mode. Later, in Sect. 4, we will show how the sensoractuator crosstalk can be removed by additional ﬁlters. The feedback ﬁlter should be versatile with a large variability of possible conﬁgurations. An inﬁnite-impulseresponse (IIR) ﬁlter structure based on a bi-quadratic function is a universal and S. -U. Kirstein · A. Hierlemann 14 Fig. 11. 8) implemented in a multiplieraccumulator architecture. The coefﬁcients are 11-bit, ﬁxedpoint numbers in the range of −1 to 1 straightforward ﬁlter implementation.
Applied Scanning Probe Methods V: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques by Sadik Hafizovic, Kay-Uwe Kirstein, Andreas Hierlemann (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Satoshi Kawata, Professor Dr. Harald Fuchs (eds.)