By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized clinical imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photographs of the human physique, with huge distinction among types of tender tissue. the iconic legacy of CT is, notwithstanding, the spur that it gave to the next creation of tomographic imaging options into diagnostic nuclear medication and the terribly quick improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This ebook is a non-mathematical advent to the rules underlying sleek clinical imaging, taking tomography as its valuable subject matter. the 1st 3 chapters disguise the final rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins glossy imaging, and a assessment of the main matters interested in radiation defense. the following chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The scientific position of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional medical histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical history to the tomographic procedure, the foundations of mathematical Fourier tools, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version contains new introductory sections at the proper physics of molecules as a rule, and water, specifically. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. a number of figures have additionally been revised.
The e-book is meant to supply a large introductory historical past to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate considering focusing on clinical physics, and the clinical scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic options in study and scientific perform.
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Extra info for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
Apart from the superconducting magnet, the MR scanner is little more than a radio transmitter/receiver linked to a computer. 3T using shaped permanent magnetic materials. MR systems designed around these magnets can already produce images of sufficient quality for clinical diagnosis. Thus MR might well follow the development course of the digital computer, progressing from the very large ‘mainframe scanner’ central facility to the desktop ‘personal scanner’. This page intentionally left blank 1 Tomography “Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen, Neither of this year’s laureates in physiology or medicine is a medical doctor.
However once the data has been collected, essentially the same mathematical method is used to create the final image in each case. We start the chapter by describing the simplest approximate tomographical reconstruction method that we call simple backprojection. This can be understood, and indeed performed, using just the mathematical operations of division and addition. It turns out that, although this scheme is actually remarkably successful, given its simplicity, it is not good enough for highresolution reconstruction and is not ever used just on its own.
1 The tomographic process generally consists of three steps. First a single slice is selected. Next a complete set of projections of that slice is obtained. Finally the set of projections are recombined, using a mathematical recipe, to form a reconstructed image of the slice. 5 Tomography interpretation of the shadow from another. By concentrating on one thin slice at time, this confusion can be avoided. Thus the starting point for most tomographic image reconstruction is a set of shadows or projections of a particular thin 2D slice through the patient.
An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche