By Lin, Weiran
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Additional resources for An abortive Chinese enlightenment The Cultural Revolution and class theory
Another form of diphthongization that can affect the low vowels e and o is "breaking" to ia and ua. In this case the [ + low] feature is extruded as a glide a, while the [ +front] and [ +labial] features remain syllabic but change to their optimal [ + high] forms. The widespread tendency of front and back-rounded vowels to rise can also be explained by the fact that the features [ + front] and [ + labial] are optimally expressed as [ + high] when syllabic. Though schwa can occur as a stressed vowel phoneme, it is comparatively rare in the world's languages.
Alternatively, it can be written as a, using the IPA diacritic for consonantal vowels. It should be made clear that this glide a, and its corresponding syllabic form a, are [—front], as well as [+low]. They therefore have the features of pharyngeal, rather than laryngeal, articulations in the Chomsky-Halle system. This calls laryngeals [ — back], in contrast to pharyngeals, which are [+back]. It illustrates the confusion that arises from making [back] rather than [front] the positive term. Laryngeal articulations obviously have nothing to do with frontness in the present sense, meaning forward movement of the tongue.
When the same thing happened before 9, 9 was elided; for example, ^ "bone," EMC kw9t, LMC kut, P ku. This rule will be more fully documented in the next chapter. Its effects in Pekingese have been partly cancelled out by a later rule laxing u to w before the front endings -j and -n: -un > -wgn, -uj > -wgj, -uan > -wan, but u remains in -urj and -ua. J. Kuipers and M. Halle as to whether schwa is really a vowel or a phonological zero in Kabardian (Halle 1970; Kuipers 1960, 1968, 1976). According to Kuipers' analysis, which is accepted by Halle and which corresponds to the analyses of other linguists of the phonologies of Northwest Caucasian languages, the surface vowels of Kabardian stressed syllables can be reduced to a 22 Chinese Phonology two-way opposition 9/a.
An abortive Chinese enlightenment The Cultural Revolution and class theory by Lin, Weiran