By Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle
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Additional info for Advances in Analog Circuits
A nullator is a two-terminal element with both its current and voltage equal to zero. A norator is a two-terminal element with unspecified current and voltage [7 – 12]. 1(a). Nullify port j(Vj, Ij) from both sides by augmenting the port with voltage and current sources that have the same port values, Vj, Ij, as discussed in the previous chapter. 1(b). 2. Apparently, the operation has not changed any current or voltage inside N1 or N2. In addition, it has fixed the port operating point (Ij and Vj) so that any internal changes inside N2 (or N1) do not change the port’s Q-point.
5 V, but it is still necessary to have ID = 1 mA, as a design requirement. This is the case that we need to decide on the value of a “power-conducting” component. To proceed, let us assume the resistor R2 is the “powerconducting” component that we need to adjust. 7, and simulate the circuit. As usual, we replacing the norator with a very high gain controlled source (VCVS), which is controlled by the fixator. 485 mA through it. 09 KΩ. 5 V R2 3 1mA D Fig. 7. The diode circuit arrangement using a nullor pair to satisfy the design criteria ID = 1 mA In general, in a circuit a norator with computed voltage V1 and current I1 can be replaced with i) a voltage source of V1 volts, ii) a current source of I1 amps, or iii) a component, such as a resistor R = V1/I1.
Monna, M. H. L. Kouwenhoven, E. Yildiz, Structured Electronic Design: Negative-Feedback Amplifiers, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.  R. Hashemian, “Local Biasing and the Use of Nullator-Norator Pairs in Analog Circuits Designs,” VLSI Design, vol. 2010, Article ID 297083, 12 pages, 2010. 1155/2010/297083.
Advances in Analog Circuits by Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle