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So, the sun tracking controller algorithm should consider current difference, current addition, current evolution slope, and current variations [23]. An algorithm is required for the determination of sun searching or sun tracking. Sun tracking is the normal operation while sun searching is required during the presence of clouds. 16. The microcontroller is initialized to access the previously recorded data table to decide to run the sun search, sun tracking, or cloud algorithms. The radiation data table has the information for a typical cloudless day.

38) dp(t) df (t) dv(t) = v(t) + f (t) = 0. 43, dv(t) df (t) dp(t) = v(t) + k4 = 0. 39 is f (t) = C et/k4 . 41) C is chosen to be equal to Imax , which is the maximum PV array current. k4 should be negative, resulting in a decreasing exponential function with time constant τ = −k4 . 43 becomes f (t) = Imax e−t/τ . 44 can be obtained. 42 can be rewritten as dp(t) dv(t) = v(t) + k4 = 0. 45. 31. 45. 32. In some cases the PV systems need to be connected to AC systems. In these cases, a specifically designed MPPT technique can be used, which is called DC-link capacitor droop control [72,73].

Once the state is selected, the fundamental variable is the differential voltage. These data are sampled to know the sun’s movement in the “sun tracking” state. The “sun search” state is in charge of orientating the sensor toward the sun if partial sunlight is available due to clouds. This action is necessary in certain conditions, for example, at dawn, and to orientate the sensor after the “cloud algorithm” state. In this state the movement of the platform is bidirectional to prevent malfunction of the system [23].

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